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广东十一选五追号软件:2020年翻譯資格二級筆譯備考試題九

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【摘要】小編給大家帶來2020年翻譯資格二級筆譯備考試題九,希望對大家有所幫助。加入環球網校有專業的老師為您解答問題,還可以和考友一起交流!

金錢政治暴露“美式民主”的虛偽面目(節選)

四、金錢政治后果惡劣

第一,金錢政治剝奪了普通民眾的政治權利。盡管美國經常炫耀一人一票的美式民主,但美國低收入者的投票權實際上受到嚴苛限制。據《美國新聞與世界報道》披露,2010年至2015年,美國有21個州通過了限制投票權的新法律,有14個州在2016年總統選舉中實施了限制投票權行使的新措施。這些法律和措施的主旨是阻止窮人登記投票。美國《新聞周刊》網站2017年11月21日報道,成千上萬的美國人因貧窮而被剝奪了投票權。已有9個州通過立法,剝奪任何未付律師費或法院??鈁叩耐鍍比?。僅在亞拉巴馬州,就有超過10萬名欠費者被剔除出選民名單,約占該州選民人口的3%。這導致美國選舉投票率降低。美國2014年中期選舉的投票率為20世紀40年代以來的最低,全國的平均投票率僅為37%。

第二,政府官職成為富人和上層階級的禁臠。按照美國政治慣例,獲得選舉勝利的候選人通?;嵐巖恍┱僦敖鄙透切┭【儆泄θ聳?,其中就包括捐款大戶和重要籌款人。美國歷任總統上任后,都會任命一批金主當駐外大使。2000年總統選舉后,政府中三分之一的新職位被勝選總統的親友和金主接掌。2008年總統選舉時支持勝選總統的556名“超級籌款人”中,三分之一的人都在時任政府內閣中獲得職位或者成為顧問,其中籌款超過50萬美元的籌款人有近80%都獲得了重要職位??忌綣倫約捍砉際員奔浜涂際允奔淶幕?,可以 免費預約短信提醒,屆時會以短信的方式提醒大家報名和考試時間。

第三,金錢政治明目張膽地向富人輸送利益。政治獻金帶來的一個惡果是,少數富人擁有了比絕大多數人更大的影響力,導致政府政策圖利富人、損害窮人利益。金錢影響立法和政府決策。富人通過競選捐款和利益回報承諾俘獲政客,使政客代表他們的利益立法。通過金錢選舉產生的總統和政府,必定會在制定政策時向有錢人傾斜,或明或暗地向資本輸送利益。這是一種變相的權錢交易。眾所周知,2017年上任的共和黨政府是富人政府。美國國會2017年通過的《減稅與就業法案》,雖然有“減稅”之名,但并非普遍減稅,而只是給富人和大企業減稅,窮人反而要加稅。根據這個法案,一方面,富人家庭繳納所得稅的稅率大幅降低,從39.6%降至35%,足足降低了4.6個百分點;另一方面,最貧窮家庭繳納所得稅的稅率卻從10%增加到12%。這個法案使最貧窮家庭遭受金錢損失,最富有家庭獲得巨大收益。2017年底的蓋洛普民調顯示,56%的美國人反對這一稅收改革法案,支持的只有29%。就企業稅收而言,《減稅與就業法案》把大型集團公司和上市企業等股份有限公司的所得稅稅率從35%下調至20%,降低了15個百分點,幅度很大,但受益企業僅占美國全部企業總數的8.6%。相反,占企業總數90%以上的個人獨資企業和合伙企業等小企業卻無法享受減稅政策,需要根據合格經營所得征收個人所得稅,允許抵扣20%收入,適用最高邊際稅率37%。金錢政治蠶食了社會平等,從根本上腐蝕了美國的社會公正。

第四,金錢政治增加解決緊迫政治社會問題的難度。在美國,槍支泛濫、槍支暴力是一個困擾社會多年的重大政治社會問題。校園槍殺案和公共場所槍殺案等大規模槍支暴力案件時有發生。美國每年有3萬多人死于槍支造成的他殺、事故和自殺,有1萬多人死于槍支暴力,有20多萬人因槍擊受傷。如果嚴格控制槍支,這些傷亡大多可以避免。但是,美國步槍協會等反對控槍的利益集團通過介入選舉和進行游說成功地瓦解了控槍努力。這些利益集團為美國總統選舉和國會選舉提供大量政治捐款,僅2010年至2018年間就通過政治行動委員會捐款1.13億美元。美國步槍協會是美國主要的反控槍組織,也是美國最有影響力的院外游說組織,每年運營經費高達2.5億美元,競選年份經費更多。由于投入大量金錢,以美國步槍協會為代表的美國反槍支管制利益集團取得了巨大成功,幾乎封殺了所有控槍法案,使美國槍支管制更加寬松。

金錢政治暴露美國社會本質。美國一直標榜自己是民主和人權的“楷模”,要全世界都向它學習。但是,無所不在、根深蒂固的金錢政治徹底戳破了美國的謊言。美式民主是富人和資本家的民主,跟下層民眾沒有多少關系。美國憲法規定的民主權利,只有口袋里有足夠多金錢的人才能享受。在金錢支配政治的美國,沒有金錢,一切關于政治參與的議論都是空談。金錢政治無情地碾壓了“美式人權”。

4. Money politics brings serious consequences.

First, money politics deprives ordinary people of their political rights. Although the United States often shows off its “one person, one vote” US-style democracy, the reality is that the voting rights of low-income US citizens are severely restricted. As reported by U.S. News & World Report, from 2010 to 2015, 21 states in the United States formulated new laws restricting voting rights, and 14 states implemented new measures to restrict the exercise of voting rights in the 2016 presidential election. The main purpose of these laws and measures was to prevent the poor from registering to vote. As reported by the website of Newsweek on November 21, 2017, thousands of US citizens have been deprived of their voting rights because of poverty. Nine states in the United States have passed legislation depriving the citizens in arrears with attorney fees or court fines of the right to vote. In Alabama alone, more than 100,000 US citizens in arrears have been removed from the voter list, accounting for approximately three percent of the state’s voter population. This has led to a lower turnout in US elections. The turnout rate slumped to its lowest level since the 1940s during the 2014 US midterm election, where the national average turnout rate was only 37 percent.

Second, government posts have become exclusive for rich people and the upper class. According to the US political practices, after winning an election, the elected candidate will usually reward those persons who have made significant contributions to the election campaign, such as major donors and fundraisers, with government posts. After taking office, the newly elected US president will usually appoint a group of major donors as ambassadors. After the 2000 presidential election, one-third of the new positions in the government were taken over by relatives, friends, and major donors of the winning president. Among the 556 “super fundraisers” who supported the winning president in the 2008 presidential election campaign, one-third of them obtained government posts or became consultants in the then administration, and 80 percent of the fundraisers who raised more than $500,000 obtained important positions.

Third, money politics is blatantly delivering benefits to the rich. A negative consequence of political contributions is that the rich people, who are fewer in number, have greater influence than the vast majority of the people, leading to the formulation of government policies that benefit the rich and harm the interests of the poor. As money affects legislation and government decisions, the rich people can make politicians serve them through campaign donations and promises of the return of benefits and legislate on their behalf. The presidents and administrations elected with the help of money will definitely favor the rich when formulating policies, and they will openly or implicitly pass on benefits to the rich. This is a disguised transaction of money and power. It is a well-known fact that the Republican administration taking office in 2017 is an administration representing the rich class of the United States. The Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA), adopted by the US Congress in 2017, claimed to reduce taxes, but it was not aimed to carry out an across-the-board tax cut. The FUTA has only cut taxes for the rich class and large corporations. It has even increased taxes for the poor people. Under the FUTA, the income tax rate for rich families has been greatly reduced from 39.6 percent to 35 percent, a significant reduction of 4.6 percentage points, and the income tax rate for the poorest families has been increased from 10 percent to 12 percent. That is how this Act has benefited the richest families while harming the economic interests of the poorest families. A Gallup poll conducted at the end of 2017 showed that 56 percent of US citizens surveyed opposed the FUTA, and only 29 percent supported it. As to corporate tax, the FUTA reduced the income tax rate of joint-stock companies, such as large corporations and listed companies, from 35 percent to 20 percent, a remarkable reduction of 15 percentage points. Nevertheless, only 8.6 percent of the US enterprises can benefit from this tax reduction policy, and about 90 percent of the US companies, which are small enterprises such as sole-proprietorship enterprises and partnership enterprises, cannot benefit from it. Under the FUTA, owners of these small enterprises may have to pay personal income tax at the top rate, which is 37 percent, and only 20 percent deduction can be calculated on their taxable income. Money politics erodes social equality and fundamentally undermines social justice in the United States.

Fourth, money politics makes it more difficult for the United States to solve its pressing political and social problems. In the United States, the proliferation of guns and gun violence are major political and social problems, which have plagued US society for many years. Mass shooting incidents in schools and other public places frequently occur. Every year in the United States, more than 30,000 people die from homicides, accidents, and suicides caused by guns; more than 10,000 people die from gun violence; and more than 200,000 people are injured by guns. Most of these deaths and injuries would have been avoided if guns had been strictly controlled during these years. Nevertheless, interest groups such as the National Rifle Association of America (NRA), who oppose gun control, have successfully disrupted the governmental gun control efforts by participating in elections and lobbying. These interest groups have made significant political contributions to the US presidential and congressional elections. They donated $113 million through PACs between 2010 and 2018 alone. The NRA is the main anti-gun control organization in the United States and the most influential outside lobbying organization in the country. Its annual operating expenses are as high as $250 million, and this number will increase in a campaign year. Due to the large amount of money they have invested, the anti-gun control interest groups represented by the NRA have achieved great success and thwarted nearly all the gun control bills, further relaxing US gun control.

Money politics exposes the nature of US society and the lies of the United States when it is praising itself as the best example of exercising democracy and safeguarding human rights for the world. “US-style democracy” is the democracy of the rich people and the capitalists. It seldom benefits the lower classes of US society. The democratic rights stipulated in the US Constitution can only be enjoyed by the people who have enough money in their pockets. In the United States, where money governs politics, political participation and discussions can never be actualized without the help of money. Money politics has ruthlessly crushed “US-style democracy”.

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